Year General Technology Art Philosophy People
4.6 billion BC The Earth forms and is bombarded by meteorites and comets
3.8 billion BC Replicating molecules (the precursors of DNA) form
3.5 billion BC Unicellular life evolves, photosynthetic bacteria begin to release oxygen into the atmosphere
555 million BC Multi-cellular marine organisms are common, the diverse assortment of life includes bizarre-looking animals like Wiwaxia
500 million Fish-like vertebrates evolve, invertebrates, such as trilobites, crinoids, brachiopids, and cephalopods, are common in the oceans
450 million BC Arthropods move onto the land, their descendants evolve into scorpions, spiders, mites, and millipedes
420 million BC Land plants evolve, drastically changing Earth's landscape and creating new habitats
360 million BC Four-limbed vertebrates move onto the land as seed plants and large forests appear, the Earth's oceans support vast reef systems
250 million BC The supercontinent called Pangea forms, conifer-like forests, reptiles, and synapsids (the ancestors of mammals) are common
248 million BC Over 90% of marine life and 70% of terrestrial life go extinct during the Earth's largest mass extinction, ammonites are among the survivors
225 million BC Dinosaurs and mammals evolve, pangea has begun to break apart
130 million BC As the continents drift toward their present positions, the earliest flowers evolve, and dinosaurs dominate the landscape, in the sea, bony fish diversify
65 million BC A massive asteroid hits the Yucatan Peninsula, and ammonites and non-avian dinosaurs go extinct, birds and mammals are among the survivors
4 million BC In Africa, an early hominid, affectionately named "Lucy" by scientists, lives, the ice ages begin, and many large mammals go extinct
Stone Age
1 - 2 million BC Humans discover fire
130 000 BC Anatomically modern humans evolve, seventy thousand years later, their descendents create cave paintings — early expressions of consciousness
50 000 - 25 000 BC Humans first wear clothes
10 000 BC Earliest boats are constructed
9000 - 8000 BC Beginnings of human settlements and agriculture
7000 - 6000 Hand-made bricks first used for constructions in Middle-East
4000 BC Iron used for the first time in decorative ornaments
3500 BC Invention of the wheel
Bronze age
c. 3200 BC Sumerian cuneiform writing system
3100 BC First dynasty of Egypt
c. 3000 BC Stonehenge construction begins Egyptian calendar, first known use of papyrus by Egyptians
2700 BC The Old Kingdom begins in Egypt
2600 BC Emergence of Maya culture in Yucatán Peninsula Oldest known surviving literature: Sumerian texts from Abu Salabikh
2560 BC King Khufu completes the Great Pyramid of Giza
2500 BC The mammoth goes extinct
2200 - 2100 BC 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event, likely the cause of collapse of Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia
2200 BC Completion of Stonehenge
2070 BC Yu the Great established the Xia Dynasty in China
2000 BC Domestication of the horse Believed birth year of Abraham in Mesopotamia, father of the Abrahamic religions
1800 BC Alphabetic writing emerges
1600 BC Minoan civilization on Crete is destroyed by the Minoan eruption of Santorini island, Mycenaean Greece, the beginning of Shang Dynasty in China, Beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region Evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system
1500 BC During 1500 - 0 BC ancient societies invent some of the first machines for moving water and agriculture Composition of the Rigveda is completed
1496 BC Traditional date for giving of the Ten Commandments to Moses at Mount Sinai ushering in monotheistic religion
c. 1400 BC Birth of Moses
1400 - 400 BC Olmec civilization flourishes in Pre-Columbian Mexico, during Mesoamerica's Formative period
1200 BC The Hallstatt culture
Iron Age
1200 - 1150 BC Bronze Age collapse in Southwestern Asia and in the Eastern Mediterranean region. This period is also the setting of the Iliad and the Odyssey epic poems, which were composed about four centuries later.
c. 1180 BC Disintegration of Hittite Empire
1100 BC Use of iron spreads
1046 BC The Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrow the last king of Shang Dynasty; Zhou Dynasty established in China
1020 to 930 BC The beginning of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) occurred sometime between these dates
890 BC Approximate date for the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey
800 BC Rise of Greek city-states
Classical antiquity
776 BC First recorded Olympic Games
753 BC Founding of Rome
745 BC Tiglath-Pileser III becomes the new king of Assyria. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns Assyria into an empire
728 BC Rise of the Median Empire
722 BC Spring and Autumn Period begins in China; Zhou Dynasty's power is diminishing; the era of the Hundred Schools of Thought
700 BC The construction of Marib Dam in Arabia Felix
660 BC Purported date of the accession of Jimmu, the mythical first Emperor of Japan
653 BC Rise of Persian Empire
612 BC An alliance between the Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians succeeds in destroying Nineveh and causing subsequent fall of the Assyrian empire
c. 600 BC Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge in India, emergence of Pandyan kingdom in South India Evidence of writing system appear in Oaxaca used by the Zapotec civilization, Thales of Miletus discovers static electricity
586 BC Destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem (Solomon's Temple) by the Babylonians
563 BC Birth of Siddhartha Gautama–also known as Buddha–and founder of Buddhism
551 BC Birth of Confucius, founder of Confucianism
550 BC Foundation of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great
549 BC Mahavira, founder of Jainism is born
546 BC Cyrus the Great overthrows Croesus King of Lydia
544 BC Rise of Magadha as the dominant power under Bimbisara
539 BC The Fall of the Babylonian Empire and liberation of the Jews by Cyrus the Great
529 BC Death of Cyrus
525 BC Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt
c. 512 BC Darius I (Darius the Great) of Persia, subjugates eastern Thrace, Macedonia submits voluntarily, and annexes Libya, Persian Empire at largest extent
509 BC Expulsion of the last King of Rome, founding of Roman Republic
508 BC Democracy instituted at Athens
c. 500 BC Completion of Euclid's "Elements" Pingala uses zero and binary numeral system, Panini standardizes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi, Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit
499 BC King Aristagoras of Miletus incites all of Hellenic Asia Minor to rebel against the Persian Empire, beginning the Greco-Persian Wars
490 BC Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion at Battle of Marathon
483 BC Death of Gautama Buddha
480 BC Persian invasion of Greece by Xerxes; Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
479 BC Death of Confucius
475 BC Warring States period begins in China as the Zhou king became a mere figurehead; China is annexed by regional warlords
c. 470 BC Birth of Socrates
465 BC Murder of Xerxes
458 BC The Oresteia by Aeschylus, the only surviving trilogy of ancient Greek plays, is performed
449 BC The Greco-Persian Wars end
447 BC Building of the Parthenon at Athens started
432 BC Construction of the Parthenon is completed
431 BC Beginning of the Peloponnesian war between the Greek city-states
429 BC Sophocles's play Oedipus the King is first performed
427 BC Birth of Plato
424 BC Nanda dynasty comes to power
404 BC End of the Peloponnesian War
400 BC Zapotec culture flourishes around city of Monte Albán
399 BC Death of Socrates
384 BC Birth of Aristotle
331 BC Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela, completing his conquest of Persia
326 BC Alexander the Great defeats Indian king Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes River
323 BC Death of Alexander the Great at Babylon
321 BC Chandragupta Maurya overthrows the Nanda Dynasty of Magadha
305 BC Chandragupta Maurya seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan)from Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of Babylonia, in return for 500 elephants
300 BC Construction of the Great Pyramid of Cholula, the world's largest pyramid by volume (the Great Pyramid of Giza built 2560 BC Egypt stands 146.5 meters, making it 91.5 meters taller), begins in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico
273 BC Ashoka the Great becomes the emperor of the Mauryan Empire
261 BC Kalinga war
257 BC Thục Dynasty takes over Việt Nam (then Kingdom of Âu Lạc)
250 BC Rise of Parthia (Ashkâniân), the second native dynasty of ancient Persia
232 BC Decline of the Mauryan Empire Death of Emperor Ashoka the Great
230 BC Emergence of Satavahanas in South India
221 BC Qin Shi Huang unifies China, end of Warring States period; marking the beginning of Imperial rule in China which lasts until 1912. Construction of the Great Wall by the Qin Dynasty begins
207 BC Kingdom of Nan Yueh extends from Canton to North Việt Nam
206 BC Han Dynasty established in China, after the death of Qin Shi Huang; China in this period officially becomes a Confucian state and opens trading connections with the West, i.e. the Silk Road
202 BC Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Battle of Zama
c. 200 BC El Mirador, largest early Maya city, flourishes, Chera dynasty emerges in South India Paper is invented in China
185 BC Shunga Empire founded
150 - 100 BC First gear-driven, precision clockwork machine (the Antikythera mechanism) is developed
149 - 146 BC Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage. War ends with the complete destruction of Carthage, allowing Rome to conquer modern day Tunisia and Libya
146 BC Roman conquest of Greece
129 BC Roman conquest of Turkey
121 BC Roman armies enter Gaul for the first time
111 BC First Chinese domination of Việt Nam in the form of the Nanyue Kingdom
c. 100 BC Chola dynasty rises in prominence
80 BC The city of Florence is founded
c. 50 BC Roman engineer Vitruvius perfects the modern, vertical water wheel
49 BC Roman Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great
44 BC End of Roman Republic; beginning of Roman Empire Julius Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus and others
40 BC Roman conquest of Egypt
27 BC Formation of Roman Empire: Octavius is given titles of Princeps and Augustus by Roman Senate - beginning of Pax Romana, formation of influential Praetorian Guard to provide security to Emperor
18 BC Three Kingdoms period begins in Korea, the temple of Jerusalem is reconstructed
6 BC Roman succession: Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar groomed for the throne Earliest theorized date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth
4 BC Widely accepted date (Ussher) for birth of Jesus Christ
9 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Imperial Roman Army's bloodiest defeat
14 Death of Emperor Augustus (Octavian), ascension of his adopted son Tiberius to the throne
26 - 34 Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, exact date unknown
37 Death of Emperor Tiberius, ascension of his nephew Caligula to the throne
40 Rome conquers Morocco
41 Emperor Caligula is assassinated by the Roman senate, his uncle Claudius succeeds him
43 Rome enters Britain for the first time
54 Emperor Claudius dies and is succeeded by his grand nephew Nero
62 Hero of Alexandria, a Greek scientist, pioneers steam power
68 Emperor Nero commits suicide, prompting the Year of the four emperors in Rome
70 Destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Titus
79 Destruction of Pompeii by the volcano Vesuvius
98 After a two-year rule, Emperor Nerva dies of natural causes, his adopted son Trajan succeeds him
106 - 117 Roman Empire at largest extent under Emperor Trajan after having conquered modern-day Romania, Iraq and Armenia
117 Trajan dies of natural causes, his adopted son Hadrian succeeds him, hadrian pulls out of Iraq and Armenia
117 Hadrian completes the Pantheon in Rome
138 Hadrian dies of natural causes, his adopted son Antoninus Pius succeeds him
161 Death of Antoninus Pius, his rule was the only one in which Rome did not fight in a war
192 Kingdom of Champa in Central Việt Nam
c. 200 The Buddhist Srivijaya Empire established in Maritime Southeast Asia
220 Three Kingdoms period begins in China after the fall of Han Dynasty
226 Fall of the Parthian Empire and Rise of the Sassanian Empire
238 Defeat of Gordian III (238–244), Philip the Arab (244–249), and Valerian (253–260), by Shapur I of Persia
280 Emperor Wu established Jin Dynasty providing a temporary unity of China after the devastating Three Kingdoms period
285 Diocletian becomes emperor of Rome and splits the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western Empires, Diocletian begins a large-scale persecution of Christians
292 The capital of the Roman empire is officially moved from Rome to Mediolanum (modern day Milan)
301 Diocletian's edict on maximum prices
313 Edict of Milan declared that the Roman Empire would tolerate all forms of religious worship
325 Constantine I organizes the First Council of Nicaea
330 Constantinople is officially named and becomes the capital of the eastern Roman Empire
335 Samudragupta becomes the emperor of the Gupta empire
337 Emperor Constantine I dies, leaving his sons Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II as the emperors of the Roman empire
350 Constantius II is left sole emperor with the death of his two brothers
354 Birth of Augustine of Hippo
361 Constantius II dies, his cousin Julian succeeds him
378 Battle of Adrianople, Roman army is defeated by the Germanic tribes
380 Roman Emperor Theodosius I declares the Arian faith of Christianity heretical
395 Theodosius I outlaws all religions other than Catholic Christianity
Early Middle Ages
406 Romans are expelled from Britain
407 - 409 Visigoths and other Germanic tribes cross into Roman-Gaul for the first time
410 Visigoths sacks Rome for the first time since 390 BC
415 Germanic tribes enter Spain
429 Vandals enter North Africa from Spain for the first time
439 Vandals have conquered the land stretching from Morocco to Tunisia by this time
c. 455 Vandals sack Rome, capture Sicily and Sardinia, Skandagupta repels an Indo-Hephthalite attack on India
476 Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a chieftain of the Germanic Heruli; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy; most frequently cited date for the end of ancient history
c. 500 Battle of Mons Badonicus
507 The Franks under Clovis defeat the Visigoths in the Battle of Vouillé
c. 524 Boethius writes his Consolation of Philosophy
525 Dionysius Exiguus publishes the Dionysius Exiguus' Easter table
527 Justinian I becomes Eastern Roman Emperor.
529 Benedict of Nursia founds monastery at Monte Cassino
529 - 534 Justinian I publishes the Code of Civil Law
532 Nika Riots in Constantinople
533 Byzantines, under Belisarius, retake North Africa from the Vandals
535 - 554 Gothic War in Italy as a part of Justinian's Reconquest
563 Saint Columba founds mission in Iona
568 The Kingdom of the Lombards is founded in Italy
c. 570 Birth of Muhammad
577 The West Saxons continue their advance at the Battle of Deorham
581 - 618 Sui Dynasty in China
590 Gregory the Great becomes Pope
597 Augustine arrives in Kent
598 - 668 Massive Chinese (Sui and Tang) invasions against Korean Goguryeo
7th Century
602 - 629 Last great Roman-Persian War
604 - 609 Grand Canal in China is fully completed
618 - 907 Tang Dynasty in China
622 Muhammad Migrates from Mecca to Medina
626 Joint Persian-Avar-Slav Siege of Constantinople Constantinople saved, Avar power broken and Persians henceforth on the defensive
627 Battle of Nineveh
632 Death of Muhammad, accession of Abu Bakr as first Caliph
633 - 634 Battle of Heavenfield
638 Jerusalem captured by the Arab army, mostly Muslims, but with contingents of Syrian Christians
641 Battle of Nehawand, muslims conquer Persia
643 Arab Army led by 'Amr ibn al-'As takes Alexandria
645 In Japan, the Soga clan falls
650 Slav occupation of Balkans complete
663 Synod of Whitby
668 End of the Three Kingdoms period in Korea
674 - 678 First Arab siege of Constantinople
681 Establishment of the Bulgarian Empire
685 Battle of Dun Nechtain
687 Battle of Tertry
698 Arab army takes Carthage, North South States Period begins in Korea
8th Century
711 Umayyad conquest of Hispania under Tarik
718 Second Arab attack on Constantinople, ending in failure
726 Iconoclast movement begun in the Byzantine Empire under Leo III. This was opposed by Pope Gregory II, and an important difference between the Roman and Byzantine churches
732 Battle of Tours, Charles Martel halts Muslim advance
735 Death of Bede
750 - 850 Chinese invent gunpowder and fireworks
750 Beginning of Abbasid Caliphate
751 Pepin the Short founds the Carolingian dynasty
754 Pepin promises the Pope central Italy–this is arguably the beginning of the temporal power of the Papacy
768 Beginning of Charlemagne's reign
778 Battle of Roncevaux Pass
786 Accession of Harun al-Rashid to the Caliphate in Baghdad
793 Sack of Lindisfarne, viking attacks on Britain begin
794 Heian period in Japan
795 Death of Offa
800 Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor
9th Century
814 Death of Charlemagne
825 Battle of Ellandun, Egbert defeats Mercians
827 Muslims invade Sicily
840 Muslims capture Bari and much of southern Italy
843 Division of Charlemagne's Empire between his grandsons with the Treaty of Verdun, Kenneth McAlpin becomes king of the Picts and Scots, creating the Kingdom of Alba
862 Viking state in Russia founded under Rurik, first at Novgorod, then Kiev
864 Christianization of Bulgaria
866 Fujiwara period in Japan, Viking Great Army arrives in England
868 Earliest known printed book in China with a date
871 Alfred the Great assumes the throne, the first king of a united England
c. 872 Harold Fairhair becomes King of Norway
874 Iceland is settled by Norsemen
882 Kievan Rus' is established
885 Arrival of the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Bulgaria
885 - 886 Vikings attack Paris
893 Simeon I becomes ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans
896 Arpad and the Magyars are present in Pannonia
899 Death of Alfred the Great
10th Century
c. 900 Mayan Empire collapses
907 Tang Dynasty ends with Emperor Ai deposed, the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China commences
910 King Edward the Elder of England, son of King Alfred, defeats the Northumbrian Vikings at the Battle of Tettenhall; they never raid south of the River Humber again, Cluny Abbey is founded by William I, Count of Auvergne
911 The Viking Rollo and his tribe settle in what is now Normandy by the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, founding the Duchy of Normandy
917 Battle of Anchialus. Simeon I the Great defeats the Byzantines
919 Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony elected German King–first king of the Ottonian Dynasty
925 The first King of Croatia, Tomislav of the Trpimirović dynasty, was crowned
927 King Aethelstan the Glorious unites the heptarchy of The Anglo-Saxon nations of Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Kent, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria founding the Kingdom of England Death of Simeon I the Great, recognition of the Bulgarian Patriarchate, the first independent National Church in Europe
929 Abd-ar-Rahman III of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus–part of the Iberian peninsula–takes the title of Caliph or ruler of the Islamic world
936 Wang Geon unified Later Three Kingdoms of Korea
955 Battle of Lechfeld, Otto the Great, son of Henry the Fowler, defeats the Magyars
c. 960 Mieszko I becomes duke of Polans, Song Dynasty begins after Emperor of Taizu usurps the throne from the Later Zhou, last of the Five Dynasties
962 Otto the Great crowned the Holy Roman Emperor
963 - 964 Otto the Great deposes Pope John XII who is replaced with Pope Leo VIII
965 - 967 Mieszko I of Poland and his court embrace Christianity, which becomes national religion
969 John I Tzimiskes the last Byzantium empire and Nikephoros II are being executed
976 Death of John I Tzimiskes; Basil II (his co-emperor) takes sole power
978 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir becomes de facto ruler of Muslim Al-Andalus
981 Basil II (called "Bulgar Slayer") begins final conquest of Bulgaria by Eastern Empire
985 Eric the Red, exiled from Iceland, begins Scandinavian colonization of Greenland
987 Succession of Hugh Capet to the French Throne
988 Volodymyr I of Kiev embrace Christianity, which becomes national religion
989 Peace and Truce of God formed
11th Century and High Middle Ages
c. 1001 Leif Ericson is to settle during the winter in present-day Canada at L'Anse aux Meadows
1016 Canute the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund Ironside, with whom he shared the English throne
1018 The Byzantines under Basil II conquer Bulgaria after a bitter 50-years struggle
1021 The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu, is completed sometime before this date
1037 The Great Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg
1049 Pope Leo IX ascends to the papal throne
1050 The astrolabe, an ancient tool of navigation, is first used in Europe
1054 The East-West Schism which divided the church into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy
1066 William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invades England and becomes King after the Battle of Hastings
1067 Pope Gregory VII elevated to the papal throne
1071 The Seljuks under Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army at Manzikert, the Normans capture Bari–the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy
1075 Dictatus Papae in which Pope Gregory VII defines the powers of the pope
1077 Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV walks to Canossa where he stands barefoot in the snow to beg forgiveness of the Pope for his offences, and admitting defeat in the Investiture Controversy The Construction of the Tower of London begins
1086 The compilation of the Domesday Book, a great land and property survey commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess his new possessions
1088 University of Bologna is formed
1095 Pope Urban issues the Crusades to capture the Holy Land, and to repel the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantine Empire from Alexios I Komnenos
1096 First Crusade, Jerusalem is re-taken from the Muslims on the urging of Pope Urban II
1098 The Cistercian Order is founded
12th Century
1102 Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary formed a personal union of two kingdoms united under the Hungarian king. The act of union was deal with Pacta conventa, by which institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the Sabor (an assembly of Croatian nobles) and the ban (viceroy)
1106 Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Devizes castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner
1107 Through the Compromise of 1107, suggested by Adela, the sister of King Henry, the Investiture Struggle in England is ended
1109 In the Battle of Naklo, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats the Pomeranians, In the Battle of Hundsfeld, Boleslaus III Wrymouth defeats Emperor Henry V
1116 The Byzantine army defeats the Turks at Philomelion
1117 The University of Oxford is founded
1118 The Knights Templar are founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city
1121 St. Norbert and 29 companions make their solemn vows marking the beginning of the Premonstratensian Order
1122 The Concordat of Worms was drawn up between Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II
1123 The First Lateran Council followed and confirmed the Concordat of Worms
1125 Lothair of Supplinburg, duke of Saxony, is elected Holy Roman Emperor instead of the nearest heir, Frederick of Swabia
1125 - 1127 Jingkang Incident
1130 Roger II is crowned King of Sicily, a royal title given him by the Antipope Anacletus II
1135 The Anarchy begins in England
1139 The Second Lateran Council declared clerical marriages invalid, regulated clerical dress, and punished attacks on clerics by excommunication
1147 - 1149 The Second Crusade was in retaliation for the fall of Edessa, one of the first Crusader States founded in the First Crusade–it was an overall failure
1150 Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, married Queen Petronilla of Aragon–hey had been betrothed in 1137
1152 The Synod of Kells-Mellifont established the present diocesan system of Ireland (with later modifications) and recognized the primacy of Armagh
1158 The Hanseatic League is founded
c. 1162 Birth of Temüjin, the Genghis Khan
1163 The first cornerstone is laid for the construction of Notre Dame de Paris
1166 Stefan Nemanja united Serbian territories, establishing the Medieval Serbian state
1171 King Henry II of England lands in Ireland to assert his supremacy and the Synod of Cashel acknowledges his sovereignty
1174 King William I of Scotland, captured in the Battle of Alnwick by the English, accepts the feudal lordship of the English crown and does ceremonial allegiance at York
1175 Hōnen Shōnin (Genkū) founds the Jōdo shū (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism
1176 At the Battle of Legnano, the cavalry of Frederick Barbarossa is defeated by the infantry of the Lombard League
1179 The Third Lateran Council limits papal electees to the cardinals alone, condemns simony, and forbids the promotion of anyone to the episcopate before the age of thirty
1183 The final Peace of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa, the pope, and the Lombard towns is signed, the Taira clan are driven out of Kyōto by Minamoto Yoshinaka
1184 Pope Lucius III issues the papal bull Ad Abolendam
1185 The reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire, at the Battle of Dan no Ura, Minamoto Yoshitsune annihilates the Taira clan Windmills are first recorded
1186 The future emperor Henry VI marries Constance of Sicily, heiress to the Sicilian throne
1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem
1189 Richard I ascends the throne of England
1189 - 1192 The Third Crusade follows upon Saladin's uniting the Muslim world and recapturing Jerusalem
1192 Minamoto no Yoritomo is appointed Sei-i Taishōgun, or shōgun for short
1193 Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji sack and burn the university at Nalanda The first known merchant guild
1199 Europeans first use compasses
13th Century
1202 The Fourth Crusade sacked Croatian town of Zadar, a rival of Venice. Unable to raise enough funds to pay to their Venetian contractors, the crusaders agreed to sack the city despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication
1204 Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade
1205 Battle of Adrianople, the Bulgarians under Emperor Kaloyan defeat Baldwin I
1206 Genghis Khan was elected as Khagan of the Mongols and the Mongol Empire was established
1208 Pope Innocent III calls for the Albigensian Crusade which seeks to destroy a rival form of Christianity practiced by the Cathars
1209 Founding of the Franciscan Order The University of Cambridge is founded
1212 Spanish Christians succeed in defeating the Moors in the long Reconquista campaigns, after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
1215 The Magna Carta is sealed by John of England, Fourth Lateran Council–dealt with transubstantiation, papal primacy and conduct of clergy–proclaimed that Jews and Muslims should wear identification marks to distinguish them from Christians
1216 Papal recognition of the Dominican Order
1219 Serbian Orthodox Church becomes autocephalous under St. Sava, its first Archbishop
1227 Death of Genghis Khan
1237 - 1240 Mongol invasion of Rus' resumes
1257 Provisions of Oxford forced upon Henry III of England Founding of the University of Paris
1258 Siege of Baghdad
1272 - 1273 The Ninth Crusade occurs
1273 Rudolph I of Germany is elected Holy Roman Emperor
1274 Thomas Aquinas' work, Summa Theologica is published, after his death
1279 Battle of Yamen
1282 Sicilian Vespers, sicilians massacre Angevins over a six-week period, after a Frenchman harassed a woman
1283 Catalan Courts
1296 Edward I of England invades Scotland, starting the First War of Scottish Independence
1297 The Battle of Stirling Bridge
1298 Marco Polo publishes his tales of China, along with Rustichello da Pisa
1299 The Ottoman Empire is founded by Osman I
14th Century and Late Middle Ages
1305 William Wallace is executed for treason
1307 The Knights Templar are rounded up and murdered by Philip the Fair of France, with the backing of the Pope, beginning of the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy during which the Popes moved to Avignon
1310 Dante publishes his Divine Comedy
1314 Battle of Bannockburn
1325 The Aztecs found the city of Tenochtitlan
1328 The First War of Scottish Independence ends in Scottish victory with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton and de jure independence
1333 Emperor Go-Daigo returns to the throne from exile, and begins the Kenmu restoration
1337 The Hundred Years' War begins–England and France struggle for a dominating position in Europe and their region
1346 Battle of Crécy
1347 The Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times–an estimated 20% - 40% of the population is thought to have perished within the first year The University of Prague is founded
1368 The fall of the Yuan Dynasty–its remnants, known as Northern Yuan, continued to rule Mongolia
1370 Tamerlane establishes the Timurid Dynasty
1378 The Western Schism during which three claimant popes were elected simultaneously
1380 Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to a victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales
1381 Peasants' Revolt in England The Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe
1386 The University of Heidelberg is founded
1389 Battle of Kosovo in Serbia
1392 Joseon Dynasty founded in Korea
1396 The Battle of Nicopolis
1397 The Kalmar Union is formed
1399 Richard II abdicates the throne to Henry of Bolingbroke, who becomes Henry IV of England
15th Century
1402 Battle of Ankara
1405 Chinese Naval Expeditions of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean (to Eastern Africa) begins, under the leadership of Zheng He
1409 Ladislaus of Naples sells his "rights" on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for 100,000 ducats
1415 Kingdom of Portugal conquers Ceuta, Battle of Agincourt–Henry V and his army defeat a numerically superior French army, partially because of the newly introduced English longbow
1417 The Council of Constance ends
1419 Hussite Wars begins after 4 years after the death of Jan Hus in central Europe, dealing with the followers of Jan Hus and those against them
1429 Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orléans for the Dauphin of France, enabling him to eventually be crowned at Reims
1431 Trial and execution of Joan of Arc
1434 The Medici family rises to prominence in Florence
1439 Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press
1442 Battle of Szeben
1442 Battle of Varna
1453 Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks, The Hundred Years' War ends
1455 Battle of St. Albans
1456 Siege of Belgrade
1459 Smederevo falls under the Turks
1461 The Empire of Trebizond falls to the Ottoman Turks
1467 - 1477 Ōnin War takes place in Japan
1485 Battle of Bosworth Field Thomas Malory composes Le Morte d'Arthur
1487 June 16 Battle of Stoke
1492 Reconquista ends, Christopher Columbus reaches the New World, Age of Discovery into the New World begins
1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves
1494 - 1559 The Italian Wars
1497 Vasco da Gama begins his first voyage from Europe to India and back–Vasco da Gama was the first European to sail directly to Eastern Asia from Europe
1499 Ottoman fleet defeats Venetians at the Battle of Zonchio The first naval battle that used cannons in ships
16th Century and Early Modern History
1928 The electric refrigerator is invented
1930s Robert Watson Watt oversees the development of radar, Peter Goldmark pioneers color television
1939 Igor Sikorsky builds the first truly practical helicopter
1947 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the transistor, which allows electronic equipment to made much smaller and leads to the modern computer revolution
1949 Bernard Silver and N. Joseph Woodland patent barcodes—striped patterns that are initially developed for marking products in grocery stores
1950s Percy Spencer accidentally discovers how to cook with microwaves, inadvertently inventing the microwave oven
1954 Indian physicist Narinder Kapany pioneers fiber optics
1956 First commercial nuclear power is produced at Calder Hall, Cumbria, England
1969 Astronauts walk on the Moon for the first time World's first solar power station opened in France
1973 Martin Cooper develops the first handheld cellphone (mobile phone)
1989 Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web